CRS report via LC: Bills, Resolutions, Nominations,and Treaties: Characteristics and Examples of Use – November 16, 2020. “In each chamber of Congress, four forms of legislative measures may be introduced (or, in the case of resolutions, submitted) and acted on: bills, joint resolutions, concurrent resolutions, and resolutions of one house (“simple resolutions”). In addition, under the U.S. Constitution,the Senate acts on two forms of executive business: nominations and treaties.This report provides a comparison of the formal characteristics and uses of these six different types of business. When Congress seeks to pass a law, it uses a bill or joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form and then presented to the President for the executive’s approval or disapproval. To regulate its own internal affairs, or for other purposes where authority of law is not necessary, Congress uses a concurrent resolution (requiring adoption by both houses) or a simple resolution (requiring action only in the house of origin). Bills are commonly used for lawmaking purposes such as authorizing programs, appropriating funds, raising or lowering revenues, and other major policy enactments. Joint resolutions are used chiefly for secondary, symbolic, or declaratory legislation but also for such matters as continuing appropriations, declarations of war, and proposing constitutional amendments. Concurrent resolutions are used for matters affecting both chambers, such as recesses, adjournments, and the congressional budget resolution. Simple resolutions are used for adopting chamber rules, committee assignments, discipline of Members, expressions of sentiment, and other housekeeping purposes in each chamber. The Senate also considers nominations and treaties. This “executive business” is so called because it is transmitted by the President, who must obtain the advice and consent of the Senate before the nomination or treaty becomes effective…”
Center for Data Innovation: “Reuters has created a series of visualizations that show how county-level votes (where at least 95 percent of expected votes have been counted) have changed between the 2016 U.S. presidential election and the 2020 U.S. presidential election. One visualization shows that counties with large numbers of Hispanic voters, which have historically favored Democrats, favored President Donald Trump during the 2020 election. For example, while 2016 Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton won Starr County, Texas by 60 percentage points, President-elect Joe Biden only won the county by 5 percentage points, making Starr County the largest swing to Trump of any U.S. county. Another visualization shows that in counties where COVID-19 has killed at least 70 people per 100,000 residents, support has increased most significantly for Trump…”
Dr. Glenn Hurst says hospitalizations are growing in part because of a nursing home "bottleneck." Many people rehabilitate at nursing homes after leaving the hospital.
The American troop presence will decline in Afghanistan from 4,500 to 2,500, and in Iraq from 3,000 to 2,500. Senior military leaders reportedly oppose the move.
(Image credit: Qassim Abdul-Zahra/AP)
BBC – “Fifteen countries have formed the world’s largest trading bloc, covering nearly a third of the global economy. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is made up of 10 Southeast Asian countries, as well as South Korea, China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. The pact is seen as an extension of China’s influence in the region. The deal excludes the US, which withdrew from a rival Asia-Pacific trade pact in 2017. President Donald Trump pulled his country out of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) shortly after taking office. Negotiations over the new RCEP deal began in 2012 and it was finally signed on Sunday on the sidelines of a meeting of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean). Why is it important? The RCEP isn’t as comprehensive and doesn’t cut tariffs as deeply as the TPP’s successor. But many analysts think RCEP’s sheer size makes it more significant. “Its membership includes a larger group of nations, notably reflecting the membership of China, which considerably boosts the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of RCEP members,” according to Rajiv Biswas, Asia Pacific chief economist for analyst firm IHS Markit. While China already has a number of bilateral trade agreements, this is the first time it has signed up to a regional multilateral trade pact…”